I’m Dreaming of a White Christmas

I’m heading home for the holidays soon.

It’s been unseasonably warm this winter, at least here in Ontario, so much so that squirrels in Ottawa are getting fat. I wanted to put together a really cool post predicting the chance of a white Christmas using lots of historical climate data, but it turns out Environment Canada has already put together something like that by crunching some numbers. We can just slam this into Google Fusion tables and get some nice visualizations of simple data.


It seems everything above a certain latitude has a much higher chance of having a white Christmas in recent times than those closer to the America border and on the coast, which I’m going to guess is likely due to how cold it gets in those areas on average during the winter. Sadly Toronto has less than a coin-flip’s chance of a white Christmas in recent times, with only a 40% chance of snow on the ground come the holiday.


But just because there’s snow on the ground doesn’t necessary mean that your yuletide weather is that worthy of a Christmas storybook or holiday movie. Environment Canada also has a definition for what they call a “Perfect Christmas”: 2 cm or more of snow on the ground and snowfall at some point during the day. Which Canadian cities had the most of these beautiful Christmases in the past?

Interestingly Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada are better represented here, which I imagine has something to do with how much precipitation they get due to proximity to bodies of water, but hey, I’m not a meteorologist.
A white Christmas would be great this year, but I’m not holding my breath. Either way it will be good to sit by the fire with an eggnog and not think about data for a while. Happy Holidays!

Visual Analytics of Every PS4 and XBox One Game by Install Size


I have a startling confession to make: sometimes I just want things to be simple. Sometimes I just want things to be easier. All this talk about “Big Data”, predictive modeling, machine learning, and all those associated bits and pieces that go along with data science can be a bit mentally exhausting. I want to take a step back and work with a smaller dataset, something simple, something easy, something everyone can relate to – after all, that’s what this blog started out being about.

A while back, someone posted on Slashdot that the folks over at Finder.com had put together data sets of the install size of every PS4 and Xbox One game released to date. Being a a console owner myself – I’m a PS4 guy, but no fanboy or hardcore gamer by any means – I thought this would be a fun and rather unique data set to play around with, one that would fit well within the category of ‘everyday analytics’. So let’s take a look shall we?


Very little background required here – the dataset comprises the title, release date, release type (major or indie), console (PS4 or Xbox One), and size in GiB of all games released as of September 10th, 2015. For this post we will ignore the time-related dimension and look only at the quantity of interest: install size.


Okay, if I gave this data to your average Excel jockey what’s the first thing they’d do? A high level summary of the data broken apart by categorical variables and summarized by quantitative? You got it!
We can see that far more PS4 games have been released than Xbox (462 vs. 336) and the relative proportions are reversed for the former platform versus the latter as release type goes.

A small aside here on data visualization: it’s worth noting that the above is a good way to go for making a bar chart from a functional perspective. Since there are data labels and the y-axis metric is in the title, we can ditch the axis and maximize the data-ink ratio (well, data-pixel anyhow). I’ve also avoided using a stacked bar chart as interpretation of absolute values tends to suffer when not read from the same baseline. I’m okay with doing it for relative proportions though – as in the below, which further illustrates the difference in release type proportion between the two consoles:

Finally, how does the install size differ between the consoles and game types? If I’m an average analyst and just trying to get a grip on the data, I’d take an average to start:
We can see (unsurprisingly, if you know anything about console games) that major releases tend to be much larger in size than indie. Also in both cases, Xbox install sizes are larger on average: about 1.7x for indie titles and 1.25x for major.

Okay, that’s interesting. But if you’re like me, you’ll be thinking about how 99% of the phenomena in the universe are distributed by a power law or have some kind of non-Gaussian based distribution, and so averages are actually not always such a great way to summarize data. Is this the case for our install size data set?

Yes, it is. We can see here in this combination histogram / cumulative PDF (in the form of a Pareto chart) that the games follow a power law, with approximately 55 and 65 percent being < 5 GiB, for PS4 and Xbox games respectively

But is this entirely due to the indie games having small sizes? Might the major releases be centered around some average or median size?

No, we can see that even when broken apart by type of release the power-law like distribution for install sizes persists. I compared the averages to medians found them to be still be decent representations of central tendency and not too affected by outliers.

Finally we can look at the distribution of the install sizes by using another type of visualization suited for this task, the boxplot. While it is at least possible to jury-rig up a boxplot in Excel (see this excellent how-to over at Peltier Tech) Google Sheets doesn’t give us as much to work with, but I did my best (the data label is at the maximum point, and the value is the difference between the max and Q3):

The plots show that install sizes are generally greater for Xbox One vs. PS4, and that the difference (and skew) appears to be a bit more pronounced for indie games versus major releases, as we saw in the previous figures.

Okay, that’s all very interesting, but what about games that are available for both consoles? Are the install sizes generally the same or do they differ?

Difference in Install Size by Console Type
Because we’ve seen that the Xbox install sizes are generally larger than Playstation, here I take the PS4 size to be the baseline for games which appear on both (that is, differences are of the form XBOX Size – PS4 Size).

Of the 618 unique titles in the whole data set (798 titles if you double count across platform), 179 (~29%) were available on both – so roughly only a third of games are released for both major consoles.

Let’s take a look at the difference in install sizes – do those games which appear for both reflect what we saw earlier?

Yes, for both categories of game the majority are larger on Xbox than PS4 (none were the same size). Overall about 85% of the games were larger on Microsoft’s console (152/179).

Okay, but how much larger? Are we talking twice as large? Five times larger? Because the size of the games varies widely (especially between the release types) I opted to go for percentages here:

Unsurprisingly, on average indie games tend to have larger differences proportionally, because they’re generally much smaller in size than major releases. We can see they are nearly twice as large on Xbox vs. PS4 while major releases about 1 and a quarter. When games are larger on PS4, there’s not as big a disparity, and the pattern across release types is the same (though keep in mind the number of games here is a lot smaller than for the former).

Finally, just to ground this a bit more I thought I’d look at the top 10 games in each release type where the absolute differences are the largest. As I said before, here the difference is Xbox size minus PS4:

For major releases, the worst offender for being larger on PS4 is Batman: Arkham Night (~6.1 GiB difference) while on the opposite end, The Elder Scrolls Online has a ~19 GiB difference. Wow.

For indies, we can see the absolute difference is a lot smaller for those games bigger on PS4, with Octodad having the largest difference of ~1.4 GiB (56% of its PS4 size). Warframe is 19.6 GiB bigger on Xbox than PS4, or 503% larger (!!)

Finally, I’ve visualized all the data together for you so you can explore it yourself. Below is a bubble chart of the Xbox install size plotted against PS4, coloured by release type, where the size of each point represents the absolute value of the percentage difference between the platforms (with the PS4 size taken to be the baseline). So points above the diagonal are larger for Xbox than PS4, and points below the diagonal are larger for PS4 than Xbox. Also note that the scale is log-log. You can see that most of the major releases are pretty close to each other in size, as they nearly lie on the y=x line.


It’s been nice to get back into the swing of things and do a little simple data visualization, as well as play with a data set that falls into the ‘everyday analytics’ category.
And, as a result, we’ve learned:

  • XBox games generally tend to have larger install sizes than PS4 ones, even for the same title
  • Game install sizes follow a power law, just like most everything else in the universe (or maybe just 80% of it)
  • What the heck a GiB is
Until next time then, don’t fail to keep looking for the simple beauty in data all around you.

References & Resources

Complete List of Xbox One Install Sizes:
Complete List of PlayStation 4 Install Sizes:
Compiled data set (Google Sheets):
Excel Box and Whisker Diagrams (Box Plots) @ Peltier Tech:

Analysis of the TTC Open Data – Ridership & Revenue 2009-2012


I would say that the relationship between the citizens of Toronto and public transit is a complicated one. Some people love it. Other people hate it and can’t stop complaining about how bad it is. The TTC want to raise fare prices. Or they don’t. It’s complicated.
I personally can’t say anything negative about the TTC. Running a business is difficult, and managing a complicated beast like Toronto’s public system (and trying to keep it profitable while keeping customers happy) cannot be easy. So I feel for them. 
I rely extensively on public transit – in fact, I used to ride it every day to get to work. All things considered, for what you’re paying, this way of getting around the city is a hell of a good deal (if you ask me) compared to the insanity that is driving in Toronto.
The TTC’s ridership and revenue figures are available as part of the (awesome) Toronto Open Data initiative for accountability and transparency. As I noted previously, I think the business of keeping track of things like how many people ride public transit every day must be a difficult one, so you have to appreciate having this data, even if it is likely more of an approximation and is in a highly summarized format.
There are larger sources of open data related to the TTC which would probably be a lot cooler to work with (as my acquaintance Mr. Branigan has done) but things have been busy at work lately, so we’ll stick to this little analysis exercise.


The data set comprises numbers for: average weekly ridership (in 000’s), annual ridership (peak and off-peak), monthly & budgeted monthly ridership (in 000’s), and monthly revenue, actual and budgeted (in millions $). More info here [XLS doc].


First we consider the simplest data and that is the peak and off-peak ridership. Looking at this simple line-graph you can see that the off-peak ridership has increased more than peak ridership since 2009 – peak and off-peak ridership increasing by 4.59% and 12.78% respectively. Total ridership over the period has increased by 9.08%.

Below we plot the average weekday ridership by month. As you can see, this reflects the increasing demand on the TTC system we saw summarized yearly above. Unfortunately Google Docs doesn’t have trendlines built-in like Excel (hint hint, Google), but unsurprisingly if you add a regression line the trend is highly significant ( > 99.9%) and the slope gives an increase of approximately 415 weekday passengers per month on average.

Next we come to the ridership by month. If you look at the plot over the period of time, you can see that there is a distinct periodic behavior:

Taking the monthly averages we can better see the periodicity – there are peaks in March, June & September, and a mini-peak in the last month of the year:

This is also present in both the revenue (as one would expect) and the monthly budget (which means that the TTC is aware of it). As to why this is the case, I can’t immediately discern, though I am curious to know the answer. This is where it would be great to have some finer grained data (daily or hourly) or data related to geographic area or per station to look for interesting outliers and patterns.

Alternatively if we look at the monthly averages over the years of average weekday ridership (an average of averages, I am aware – but the best we can do given the data we have), you can see that there is a different periodic behavior, with a distinct downturn over the summer, reaching a low in August which then recovers in September to the maximum. This is interesting and I’m not exactly sure what to make of it, so I will do what I normally do which is attribute it to students.

Lastly, we come to the matter of the financials. As I said the monthly revenue and budget for the TTC follow the same periodic pattern as the ridership, and on the plus side, with increased ridership, there is increased revenue. Taking the arithmetic difference of the budgeted (targeted) revenue from actual, you can see that over time there is a decrease in this quantity:
Again if you do a linear regression this is highly significant ( > 99.9%). Does this mean that the TTC is becoming less profitable over time? Maybe. Or perhaps they are just getting better at setting their targets? I acknowledge that I’m not an economist, and what’s been done here is likely a gross oversimplification of the financials of something as massive as the TTC.

That being said, the city itself acknowledges [warning – large PDF] that while the total cost per hour for an in-service transit vehicle has decreased, the operating cost has increased, which they attribute to increases in wages and fuel prices. Operating public transit is also more expensive here in TO than other cities in the province, apparently, because we have things like streetcars and the subway, whereas most other cities only have buses. Either way, as I said before, it’s complicated.


I always enjoy working with open data and I definite appreciate the city’s initiative to be more transparent and accountable by providing the data for public use.
This was an interesting little analysis and visualization exercise and some of the key points to take away are that, over the period in question:
  • Off-peak usage of the TTC is increasing at a greater rate than peak usage
  • Usage as a whole is increasing, with about 415 more weekday riders per month on average, and a growth of ~9% from 2009 – 2012
  • Periodic behavior in the actual ridership per month over the course of the year
  • Different periodicity in average weekday ridership per month, with a peak in September
It would be really interesting to investigate the patterns in the data in finer detail, which hopefully should be possible in the future if more granular time-series, geographic, and categorical data become available. I may also consider digging into some of the larger data sets, which have been used by others to produce beautiful visualizations such as this one.

I, for one, continue to appreciate the convenience of public transit here in Toronto and wish the folks running it the best of luck with their future initiatives.

References & Resources

TTC Ridership – Ridership Numbers and Revenues Summary (at Toronto Open Data Portal)

Toronto Progress Portal – 2011 Performance Measurement and Benchmarking Report

What The Smeg? Some Text Analysis of the Red Dwarf Scripts


Just as Pocket fundamentally changed my reading behaviour, I am finding that now having Netflix (and even before that, other downloadable or streaming digital content) is really changing my behaviour as far as television is concerned.

Where watching TV used to be an affair of browsing through 500 channels and complaining there was nothing on, now with the advent of on-demand digital services there is choice. Instead of flipping through hundreds of channels (is that a linear search or a random walk?), most of which have nothing whatsoever that interests you, now you can search for exactly the show you are looking for and watch it when you want. Without commercials.

Wait, what? That’s amazing! No wonder people are ‘cutting the cord’ and media corporations are concerned about the future of their business model.

True, you can still browse. People complain that the selection on Netflix is bad for Canada, but for 8 dollars a month, really it’s pretty good what you’re getting. And given the…. eclectic nature of the selection I sometimes find myself watching something I would never think to look for directly, or give a second chance if I just caught 5 minutes of the middle of it on cable.

Such is the case with Red Dwarf. Red Dwarf is one of those shows that gained a cult following, and, despite its many flaws, for me has a certain charm and some great moments. This despite my not being able to understand all of the jokes (or dialogue!) as it is a show from the BBC.

The point is that before Netflix, I probably wouldn’t come across something like this, and I definitely wouldn’t watch all of it, if there wasn’t that option so easily laid out.

So I watched a lot of this show and got to thinking, why not take this as an opportunity to do some more everyday analytics?


If you’re not familiar with the show or a fan, I’ll briefly summarize here so you’re not totally lost.

The series centers around Dave Lister, an underachieving chicken-soup vending machine repairman aboard the intergalactic mining ship Red Dwarf. Lister inadvertently becomes the last human being alive when being put into stasis for 3 million years by the ship’s computer, Holly, when there is a radiation leak aboard the ship. The remainder of the ship’s crew are Arnold J. Rimmer, a hologram of Lister’s now-deceased bunkmate and superior officer; The Cat, a humanoid evolved from Lister’s pet cat; Kryten, a neurotic sanitation droid; and later Kristine Kochanski, a love interest who gets brought back to life from another dimension.

Conveniently, the Red Dwarf scripts are available online, transcribed by dedicated fans of the program. This just goes to show that the series truly does have cult following, when there are fans who love the show so much as to sit and transcribe episodes just for it’s own sake! But then again, I am doing data analysis and visualization on that same show….


Of the ten seasons and 61 episodes of the series, the data set covers Seasons 1-8 and comprises and 51 episodes of those 52 (S08E03 – Back In The Red (Part III) is missing).
I did some text analysis of the data with the tm package for R. 

First we can see the prevalence of different characters within the show over the course of the series. I’ve omitted the x-axis labels as they made the chart appear cluttered, you can see them by interacting.

Lister and Rimmer, the two main characters, have the highest amount of mentions overall. Kryten appears in the eponymous S02E01 and is then later introduced as one of the core characters at the beginning of Season 3. The Cat remains fairly constant throughout the whole series as he appears or speaks mainly for comedic value. In S01E06, Rimmer makes a duplicate of himself which explains the high number of lines by his character and mentions of his name in the script. You can see he disappears after Episode 2 of Season 7 in which his character is written out, until re-appearing in Season 8 (he appears in S07E05 as there is an episode dedicated to the rest of the crew reminiscing about him).

Holly, the ship’s computer, appears consistently at the beginning of the program until disappearing with the Red Dwarf towards the beginning of Season 6. He is later reintroduced when it returns at the beginning of Season 8.

Lister wants to bring back Kochanski as a hologram in S01E03, and she also appears in S02E04, as it is a time travel episode. She is introduced as one of the core cast members in Episode 3 of Season 7 and continues to be so until the end of the series.

Ace is Rimmer’s macho alter-ego from another dimension. He appears a couple time in the series before S07E02, in which he is used as a plot device to write Rimmer out of the show for that season.

Appearance and mentions of other crew members of the Dwarf correspond to the beginning of the series and the end (Season 8) when they are reintroduced. The Captain, Hollister, appears much more frequently towards the end of the show.

Robots appear mainly as one-offs who are the focus of a single episode. The exceptions are the Scutters (Red Dwarf’s utility droids) whose appearances coincide with the parts of the show where the Dwarf exists, and simulants which are mentioned occasionally as villians / plot devices. The toaster and snarky dispensing machine also appear towards the beginning and end, with the former also having speaking parts in S04E04.

As mentioned before, the Dwarf gets destroyed towards at the end of Season 5 until being reintroduced at the beginning of Season 8. During this time, the crew live in one of the ship’s shuttlecraft, The Starbug. You can also see that the starbug is mentioned more frequently in episodes when the crew go on excursions (e.g. Season 3, Episodes 1 and 2).

One of the recurring themes of the show is how much Lister really enjoys Indian food, particularly chicken vindaloo. That and how he’d much rather just drink beer at the pub than do anything. S04E02 (spike 1) features a monster, a Chicken Vindaloo man (don’t ask), and the whole premise of S07E01 (spike 2) is Lister wanting to go back in time to get poppadoms.

Thought this would be fun. Space is a consistent theme of the show, obviously. S07E01 is a time travel episode, and the episodes with Pete (Season 8, 6-7) at the end feature a time-altering device.


I recall talking to associate of mine who recounted his experiences in a data analysis and programming workshop where the data set used was the Enron emails. As he quite rightly pointed out, he knew nothing about the Enron emails, so doing the analysis was difficult – he wasn’t quite sure what he was looking at, or what he should be expecting. He said he later used the Seinfeld scripts as a starting point, as this was at least something he was familiar with.

And that’s an excellent point. You don’t need necessarily need to be a subject matter expert to be an analyst, but it sure helps to have some idea what you exactly you are analyzing. Also I would think that there’s a higher probability you care about what you are trying to analyze more if you know something about it.

On that note, it was enjoyable to analyze the scripts in this manner, and see something so familiar as a television show visualized as data like any other. I think the major themes and changes in the plotlines of the show were well represented in this way.

In terms of future directions, I tried looking at the correlation between terms using the findAssocs() function but got strange results, which I believe is due to the small number of documents. At a later point I’d like to do that properly, with a larger number of documents (perhaps tweets). Also this would work better if synonym replacement for the characters was handled in the original corpus, instead of ad-hoc and after the fact (see code).

Lastly, another thing I took away from all this is that cult TV shows have very, very devoted fan-bases. Probably due to its systemic bias, there is an awful lot about Red Dwarf on Wikipedia, and elsewhere on the internet.


code and data on github

Red Dwarf Scripts (Lady of the Cake)

What’s in My Pocket? Read it now! (or Read It Later)


You know what’s awesome? Pocket.

I mean, sure, it’s not the first. I think Instapaper existed a little before (perhaps). And there are alternatives, like Google Reader. But Pocket is still my favorite. It’s pretty awesome at what it does.

Pocket (or Read It Later, as it used to be known) has fundamentally changed the way I read.

Before I had an Android phone I used to primarily read books. But applications like Pocket allow you to save an article from the web so you can read it later. Being a big fan of reading (and also procrastination) this was a really great application for me to discover, and I’m quite glad I did. Now I can still catch up on the latest Lifehacker even if I am on the subway and don’t have data connectivity.


The other interesting thing about this application is that they make it fairly easy to get a hold of your data. The website has an export function which allows you to dump all your data for everything you’ve ever added to your reading list into HTML.

Having the URL of every article you’ve ever read in Pocket is handy, as you can revisit all the articles you’ve saved. But there’s more to it than that. The HTML export also contains the time each article was added (in UNIX epoch). Combine this with an XML or JSON dump from the API, and now we’ve got some data to work with.

My data set comprises a list of 2975 URLs added to the application over the period 14/07/2011 – 19/09/2012. The data from the export includes the article ID, article URL, date added and updated, and tags added to each article.

In order to add to the data provided by the export functionalities, I wrote a simple Python script using webarticle2text, which is available on github. This script downloaded the all the text from each article URL and continually added it to a single text file, as well as doing a word count for each article and extracting the top-level domain (TLD).


First of all we can take a very simple overview of all the articles I have saved by site:

And because pie-type charts make Edward R. Tufte (and some other dataviz people) cry, here is the same information in a bar chart:
Head and shoulders above all other websites at nearly half of all articles saved is Psychology Today. I would just like to be on the record as saying – don’t hate. I know this particular publication is written in such a fashion that it usually thought of as being slanted towards women, however I find the majority of articles to be quite interesting (as evidenced by the number of articles I have read). Perhaps other men are not that interested in the goings-on in their own and other people’s heads, but I am (apparently).

Also, I think this is largely due to the design of the site. I commented before that using Pocket has changed the way I read. Well, one example of this is that I find I save a lot more articles from sites which have well designed mobile versions, as I primarily add articles from my phone. For this reason I can also see why I have saved so many articles from Psych Today, as their well-designed mobile site has made it easy to do so. Plus the article titles are usually enough to grab me.

You can have a look at their visually appealing mobile site if you are on a phone (it detects if the browser is a desktop browser). The other top sites in the list also have well-designed mobile sites (e.g. The Globe and Mail, AskMen, Ars Technica).

Good mobile site design aside, I like reading psych articles, men’s magazines, news, and tech.

Next we examine the data with respect to time.

Unfortunately the Pocket export only provides two categories: time added and time ‘updated’. Looking at the data, I believe this ‘updated’ definition applies to mutiple actions on the article, like marking as read, adding tags, re-downloading, et cetera. It would be ideal to actually have the date/time when the article was marked as read, as then further interesting analysis could be done. For example, looking at the time interval between when articles were added and read, or the number the number of articles read per day.

Anyhow, we continue with what data are available. As in a previous post, we can get a high-level overview of the data with a scatterplot:


The most salient features which immediately stand out are the two distinct bands in the early morning and late afternoon. These correspond to when the majority of my reading is done, on my communte to and from work on public transit.

You can also see the general usage lining up with events in my personal life. The bands start in early October, shortly after I began my new job and started taking public transit. There is also a distinct gap from late December to early January when I was home visiting family over the Christmas holidays.

You can see that as well as being added while I am on public transit, articles are also added all throughout the day. This is as expected; I often add articles (either on my phone or via browser) over the course of the day while at work. Again, it would be interesting to have more data to look at this further, in particular knowing which articles were read or added from which platform.

I am uncertain about articles which are listed as being updated in the late hours in the evening. Although I sometimes do read articles (usually through the browser) in these hours, I think this may correspond to things like adding tags or also a delay in synching between my phone and the Pocket servers.

I played around with heatmaps and boxplots of the data with respect to time, but there was nothing particularly interesting which you can’t see from this scatterplot. The majority of articles are added and updated Monday to Friday during commute hours.

We can also look at the daily volume of articles added:

This graph looks similar to one seen previously in my post on texting. There are some days where very few articles are added and a few where there are a large number. Looking at the distribution of the number of articles added daily, we see an exponential type distribution:

Lastly we examine the content of the articles I read. As I said, all the article text was downloaded using Python and word counts were calculated for each. We can plot a histogram of this to see the distribution of the article length for what I’ve been reading:


Well, that doesn’t look quite right. Did I really read an article 40,000 words long? That’s about 64 pages isn’t it? Looking at URLs for the articles with tens of thousands of words, I could see that those articles added were either malfunctions of the Pocket article parser, the webarticle2text script, or both. For example, the 40,000 word article was a post on the Dictionary.com blog where the article parser also grabbed the entire comment thread.

Leaving the data as is, but zooming in on a more reasonable portion of the histogram, we see something a little more sensical:

This is a little more what we expect. The bulk of the data are distributed between very short articles and those about 1500 words long. The spikes in the low end also correspond to failures of the article parsers.

Now what about the text content of the articles? I really do enjoy a good wordcloud, however, I know that some people tend look down upon them. This is because there are alternate ways of depicting the same data which are more informative. However as I said, I do enjoy them as they are visually appealing.

So firstly I will present the word content in a more traditional way. After removing stop words, the top 25 words found in the conglomerate file of the article text are as follows:

As you can see, there are issues with the download script as there is some garbage in there (div, the years 2011 and 2012, and garbage characters for “don’t” and “are”, or possibly “you’re”). But it appears that my recreational reading corresponds to the most common subjects of its main sources. The majority of my reading was from Psychology Today and so the number one word we see is “people”. I also read a lot articles from men’s magazines, and so we see words which I suspect primarily come from there (“women”, “social”, “sex”, “job”), as well as the psych articles.

And now the pretty visualization:

Seeing the content of what I read depicted this way has made me have some realizations about my interests. I primarily think of myself as a data person, but obviously I am genuinely interested in people as well.

I’m glad data is in there as a ‘big word’ (just above ‘person’), though maybe not as big as some of the others. I’ve just started to fill my reading list with a lot of data visualization and analysis articles as of late.

Well, that was fun, and somewhat educational. In the meantime, I’ll keep on reading. Because the moment you stop reading is the moment you stop learning. As Dr. Seuss said: “The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go!”


  • Majority of reading done during commute on public transit
  • Number of articles added daily of exponential-type distribution
  • Most articles read from very short to ~1500 words
  • Articles focused on people, dating, social topics; more recently data


Pocket (formerly Read It Later) on Google Play:

Pocket export to HTML:

Mediagazer Editor Lyra McKee: What’s In My Pocket

Founder/CEO of Pocket Nate Weiner: What’s In My Pocket

Pocket Trends (Data analysis/analytics section of Pocket Blog)

webarticle2text (Python script by Chris Spencer)

FBI iPhone Leak Breakdown

Don’t know if you heard, but something that is making the news today is that hacker group AntiSec purportedly gained control of an FBI agent’s laptop and got a hold of 12 million UDIDs which were apparently being tracked.

A UDID is Apple’s unique identifier for each of its ‘iDevices’, and if known could be used to get a lot of personally identifiable information about the owner of each product.

The hackers released the data on pastebin here. In the interests of protecting the privacy of the users, they removed all said personally identifiable information from the data. This is kind of a shame in a way, as it would have been interesting to do an analysis of the geographic distribution of the devices which were (allegedly) being tracked, amongst other things. I suppose they released the data for more (allegedly) altruistic purposes – i.e. to let people find out if the FBI was tracking them, not to have the data analyzed.

The one useful column that was left was the device type. Surprisingly, the majority of devices were iPads. Of course, this could just be unique to the million and one records of the 12 million which the group chose to release.

iPhone: 345,384 (34.5%)
iPad: 589,720 (59%)
iPod touch: 63,724 (6.4%)
Undetermined: 1,173 (0.1%)
Total: 1,000,001

Forgive me Edward Tufte, for using a pie chart.